# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you consider numericals nowadays, the first of all that pops in your head is the decimal method we utilize everyday. This system, however, is not the only approach to depict numbers. There are a lot of methods utilized by distinct cultures all over the world that utilize all sorts of symbols. One such system is Roman numerals.

Given that ancient Rome, Roman numerals have been a method of expressing numbers utilizing a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It existed throughout the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still taught in school, which is possibly why you have stumbled upon this article.

Today, we are going to look at Roman numbers, what they are, how they function, and how to change Roman numerals to normal numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's look at a quick look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were initially used by the historic Romans, as you might have expected from the name. They were used in multiple aspects of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even war.

Nowadays, its extensive use is mainly attributed to aesthetic reasons. You may have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman number system represents numbers employing a mixture of characters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to form groups that depict numbers. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, represent the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, individually. You can then blend these numbers to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is established on the ideas of place value, Roman numerals are based on cumulative and subtractive principles. This states that a Roman number's numeric values are founded on the sum of the values of its individual parts. One more important difference is that the decimal approach is established on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numbers are established on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's look at a few hands-on examples of Roman numbers.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we look at the number in the title, we see it has a V in it. This is due to the fact number 5 in Roman numerals is portrayed by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we understand that this is the 4th to enter in the series using the characteristics we will discuss subsequently in the article.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the latest to enter the original trilogy. Observing the value portrayed, it contains a V followed by an I. Thus, we will include a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, comprehending this Star Wars movie is the 6th episode in the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is important to comprehend the numeric value of all the characters. To assist you make this function easy, here is a chart with all Latin letters with defined numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numbers to Everyday Numbers

Now that we have the convenient table of Roman numerals, we can utilize that data to transform numericals back and forth quickly. Following these steps, you will convert these values any time you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numbers to Decimal Numbers

To convert Roman numerals to regular numericals, we will utilize the cumulative and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is smaller in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman number to its right is more in value, subtract the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numeral to its left.

All you should do now is replicate this method until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's check out how you can convert Roman numerals with a few examples.

### Example 1

Study the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, that is L or 50.

The Roman number to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is less than 50, we add the both values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and the result is 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we sum the both values and we find 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 75, we sum the two values and the result is 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Therefore, the Roman number LXXVI is equivalent to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Take into account the Roman number MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is M or 1000.

The Roman numeral to its right is C or 100. Since 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 1900, we sum the two values and we find 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and we find 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and the answer is 1903.

Given that we have arrived the end of the Roman number group, we halt here with our answer. So, the Roman numeral MCMIII is as same as the decimal number 1903.

With this data and a little practice, you will change Roman numerals to regular numbers like a professional!

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